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ENGG 481 Technology and Society: Essay Preparation

This guide will aid you in writing your essay for ENGG 481

Citation tools

In-Text and Bibliography

In-text citations refer to citing a source in the body of your essay. 

1) General knowledge does not have to be cited. 

Example: In university, students are required to write essays.

2) Paraphrased knowledge does need to be cited.

Example: In Mackiewicz's article on writing tutors, she explains that tutors are not expected to have subject specific knowledge (318).

3) Direct quotations do need to be cited.

Example: When choosing writing tutors "no one, for example, expects a writing tutor to have in-depth knowledge of wind generators or wireless networks" (Mackiewicz 318).

Why cite sources?

Why cite sources?

  • To avoid plagiarism
  • To give credit to others for their ideas
  • To demonstrate that you are aware of and have consulted relevant literature on your topic
  • To help your reader find more information related to what you're writing about

Avoiding plagiarism

Plagiarism is "the act of using another person's words or ideas without giving credit to that person" (Merriam-Webster.com). Plagiarism may also apply where other intellectual products (e.g. drawings, data) are reproduced without giving credit to that source. Ignorance is not an excuse -- students at the University of Calgary are expected to understand and avoid plagiarism.

Citing all sources you have used in an assignment is the easiest way to avoid plagiarism. You must cite every instance of a source you have used. This is why most citation styles have two components: an in-text reference where you indicate right within the paper where you got the information; and a bibliography or reference list, where you provide full publication information for the sources you used. You can see an example of this by looking at any article published in an academic journal, such as this one: 

J. McLurkin, J. Rykowski, M. John, Q. Kaseman and A. Lynch, 'Using Multi-Robot Systems for Engineering Education: Teaching and Outreach With Large Numbers of an Advanced, Low-Cost Robot', IEEE Trans. Educ., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 24-33, 2013.

What to cite

  • Exact language that you're taking from other publications
  • Ideas or concepts form other publications that you've paraphrased in your own words
  • Facts and figures that are not common knowledge

A note about images and figures: You should not reproduce photographs, drawings and other images without permission, even if you cite them. If you wish to include an image in your work, you should take the additional step of seeking permission from the author or the publisher, and note this in the caption.