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Natural Sciences Programme

These pages support SCIE courses in general.

When citing...

... you acknowledge another person's ideas, whether you have quoted them directly or not. You are also trying to provide enough information for your reader to find the source that you consulted.

A citation provides brief details of the author and date of publication within your paper. It leads the reader to your Bibliography or Reference List

A Bibliography or Reference List is a list at the end of your paper of all references used within your paper

  • References are sorted alphabetically by surname of the first author

Reference is a specially formatted description of the item from which you obtained your information

CSE

For SCIE classes, references are formatted according to the name-year format in the Council of Biology Editors' (now Council of Science Editors, CSE) Scientific Style and Format:

  • Scientific style and format, 8th ed. (electronic) -- Chapter 29
  • For SCIE classes, use the entire journal name in your reference lists, rather than abbreviations

Citing sources within the body of your paper - CSE

Citation (used within the body of your paper)

One or two authors

 

- Note that authors can also be committees, organizations, or other parties responsible for a work

The evolution of the giraffe is often cited as verification of Darwin’s theory of natural selection (Gould 1996).

Giraffe spend the majority of their lives in areas where there are trees and bushes on which they can graze (Dagg and Foster 1982).

According to Gould (1996) the evolution of the giraffe is often cited as verification of Darwin's theory of natural selection.

According to the Asteroid Hypothesis, debris after the impact darkened the skies, causing a decline in global temperature (Smithsonian ... 2006).

Three or more authors

- List the first author followed by "et al."

- al. is an abbreviation for alia *, Latin for others
(*as well as alii (m), and aliae (f))

Athletes who wore an ice vest before a race had lowered core temperatures both before and after the race, compared with athletes who did not (Hunter et al. 2006).

An earlier study (Hunter et al. 2006) found that athletes who wore an ice vest before a race had lowered core temperatures both before and after the race, compared with athletes who did not.

Hunter and colleagues (2006) found that athletes who wore an ice vest before a race had lowered core temperatures both before and after the race, compared with athletes who did not.

It was clear that drowning was secondary to the main problem, which was hypothermia (Wilkerson et al. 1986).

No authors
- use the first word or first few words of the title, followed by an ellipsis. Use more words if you need to distinguish it from other references with similar titles.

No date

- place the words "date unknown" in square brackets

(Gene ... 1990)

 

 

 
(Graham [date unknown])

If the author(s) name(s) occur within the text, the year should follow in parentheses

Simmons and Scheepers (1996) conclude that sexual selection has been overlooked as an explanation for the giraffe’s long neck.

Direct quotation

- CSE examples do not identify the page number(s), but we highly recommend it.

“Parallel coevolution towards a smaller size, henceforth called evolutionary disarmament, occurs under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race” (Kisdi and Geritz 2001 p. 2589).

Several articles in one in-text reference

- Chronological sequence, separated by semicolons. Sequence by month those published in the same year or alphabetically by author name if month is not available

*Why is there a Smith GT and a Smith AL? The initials distinguish between 2 authors with the same last name who published in the same year.

...and the main contributors (Dawson and Briggs 1974; Dawson and Jones 1974; Smith AL 1978; Smith GT 1978; Smith et al. 1978; Tyndall et al. 1978; Zymgomoski 1978; Brown 1980) established that...

 

If you have more than one paper with the same author listed first:

a) "include enough coauthor names in the in-text reference to eliminate ambiguity."

b) If both articles have all identical authors, then, "add an alphabetic designator to the year in both the in-text reference and the end reference."

 

 
a) ... x was the conclusion (Martinez, Fuentes, et al. 1990), however, this was refined in a later paper (Martinez, Fuentes, Ortiz, et al. 1990)

b) Cold hardiness in cereals (Card et al. 2007a; Card et al. 2007b) is affected by ...

Images (from other sources), see below  

Sorting references within the reference list or bibliography - CSE

References are sorted alphabetically by surname of the first author. See the example below.

For SCIE 311 classes, place references into the categories, Research Papers, Review Papers, and Other Instructor-Approved Sources.  Then alphabetize within each category.

---------------------

References

Research articles

Green HW 2nd, Burnley PC. 1989. A new self-organizing mechanism for deep-focus earthquakes. Nature. 341:733-737. doi:10.1038/341733a0.

Jorge-Villar SE, Edwards HGM, Benning LG, AMASE 2004 team. 2011. Raman spectroscopic analysis of arctic nodules: relevance to the astrobiological exploration of Mars. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 401: 2927-2933. doi:10.1007/s00216-011-5385-5.

Stocker BD, Roth R, Joos F, Spahni R, Steinacher M, Zaehle S, Bouwman L, Ri X, Prentice IC. 2013. Multiple greenhouse-gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios. Nature Climate Change. 3(7):666-672. doi:10.1038/nclimate1864.

 

Review articles

Stocker TF, Marchal O. 2000. Abrupt climate change in the computer: is it real? PNAS. 97(4):1362-1365. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.4.1362.

 

Instructor-approved sources

Gene data may help fight colon cancer. 1990 Aug 24. Los Angeles Times. Sect. A:4.

Giraffe and okapi. 1995. In: Van Nostrand’s scientific encyclopedia. 8th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1:1463-1464.

IPCC. 2013. Summary for Policymakers. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor MMB, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley P, editors. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Stocker TF. 1998. The seesaw effect. Science. 282(5386):61-62. doi:10.1126/science.282.5386.61.

Stocker TF. 2004. Models change their tune. Nature. 430:737-738.

Wood DN, Hard JE, Harvey AP, editors. 1989. Information sources in the earth sciences. London: Bowker-Saur.

 

 

References in your reference list or bibliography - CSE

CSE

  • For SCIE classes, use the entire journal name in your reference lists, rather than abbreviations

 

Bibliography or Reference List

Books | Parts of a Book or Contributions to Books | Articles | ConferencesNewspapers | Theses & Dissertations | Government Publications | Internet Sources | Images  

Referencing Books

Format Author(s) [or editor(s)]. Year of publication. Book title. Edition (if available). Place of Publication: Publisher. Extent (pagination - optional). Notes (optional).
Single author

Hitching F. 1982. The neck of the giraffe. New York: New American Library.

Moore R. 1997. Writing to learn science. Fort Worth (TX): Saunders College Publishing.

Multiple author

Booth WC, Colomb GG, Williams JM. 2003. The craft of research. London: The University of Chicago Press.

>10 authors: treat names as for journal articles (below)

Edited work or compiled work

Wood DN, Hard JE, Harvey AP, editors. 1989. Information sources in the earth sciences. London: Bowker-Saur.

Mossop GD, Shetsen I, compilers. 1994. Geological atlas of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Calgary: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists and Alberta Research Council.

Book with edition, organization as author

Style Manual Committee, Council of Biology Editors. 1994. Scientific style and format: the CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 6th ed. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press.

Author, editor, translator, and note

Luzikov VN. 1985. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Galkin AV, translator; Roodyn DB, editor. New York: Consultants Bureau. Translation of Reguliatsiia formirovaniia mitokhondrii.

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Referencing Parts of a Book or Contributions to Books

Chapter - different chapter author and book editor

Lum A. 1989. Palaeontology. In: Wood DN, Hard JE, Harvey AP, editors. Information sources in the earth sciences. London (UK): Bowker-Saur. p. 236-273.

Volume with a separate title

Cajori F. 1929. A history of mathematical notations. Chicago: Open Court. Volume 2, Notation mainly in higher mathematics. 

Paper in a book - different authors, with note

Behrent JC, Green AG, Cannon WF, Hutchison DR, Lee MW, Milkereity B, Agena WF, Spencer C. 1989. Crustal extension in the Mid-continent rift system - results from GLIMPCE deep seismic reflection profiles over Lakes Superior and Michigan. In: Mereu S, Mueller S, Fountain DM, editors. Properties and processes of Earth's lower crust. Washington: American Geophysical Union. Geophysical Monograph. 51:81-89.

Signed encyclopedia article

Curtin CB. 1997. Giraffe. In: McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 8:112.

Unsigned encyclopedia article

Giraffe and okapi. 1995. In: Van Nostrand’s scientific encyclopedia. 8th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1:1463-1464.

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Referencing Articles

Format Author(s). Date of publication. Article title. Journal Title. Volume(issue):article pages.
Single author

Gould SJ. 1996. The tallest tale. Natural History. 105:18-26.

Solounias N. 1999. The remarkable anatomy of the giraffe’s neck. Journal of Zoology. 247(2):257-268.

Multiple author

Kisdi E, Geritz SAH. 2001. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences. 268:2589-2594.

Green HW 2nd, Burnley PC. 1989. A new self-organizing mechanism for deep-focus earthquakes. Nature. 341:733-737. doi:10.1038/341733a0.

Jorge-Villar SE, Edwards HGM, Benning LG, AMASE 2004 team. 2011. Raman spectroscopic analysis of arctic nodules: relevance to the astrobiological exploration of Mars. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 401: 2927-2933. doi:10.1007/s00216-011-5385-5.

>10 authors: list first 10, followed by a comma and et al.
Pizzi C, Caraglia M, Cianciulli M, Fabbrocini A, Libroia A, Matano E, Contegiacomo A, Del Prete S, Abbruzzese A, Martingnetti A, et al. 2002. Low-dose recombinant IL-2 induces psychological changes: monitoring by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventor (MMPI). Anticancer Research. 22(2A):727-732.

Specific type of article (no author)

A community of chemists and biologists [editorial]. 2005. Nature Chemical Biology. 1(1):3.

Article with an article number instead of page numbers (see original article here)

Format: Author(s). Date of publication. Article title. Journal Title. Volume(issue):article number.

Yuqiang X, Li H, Boufadel MC, Sharifi Y. 2010. Hydrodynamic factors affecting the persistence of the Exxon Valdez oil in a shallow bedrock beach. Water Resources Research. 46(10):W10528.

Article with a DOI
If print-related info (vol., iss., pg. or article number) is available, this can be optional.
 

Format: Author(s) of article. Date of publication. Article title. Journal title [medium]. [date updated; date cited]; Volume(issue):location. Notes.

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. 330(7500):1119-1120. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

Martín C, Hindmarsh RCA, Navarro FJ. 2009. On the effects of divide migration, along‐ridge flow, and basal sliding on isochrones near an ice divide. Journal of Geophysical Research. 114:F02006. doi:10.1029/2008JF001025.

Part of an article

Franklin PD, Panzer RJ, Brideau LP, Griner PF. 1990 Jun. Innovations in clinical practice through hospital-funded grants. Academic Medicine. 65(6):355-360. Figure 1, Cost and net annual savings per study; p. 358.

Supplements or different dates

Kaufert JM, O'Neil JD, Koolage WW. 1991. The cultural and political context of informed consent for Native Canadians. Arctic Medical Research. Suppl:181-184.

Sampat P. 2000 Jan-Feb. Groundwater shock: the polluting of the world's major freshwater stores. World Watch. 10-22.

Advanced publication or forthcoming articles

Format: Author(s). Forthcoming date. Article title. Journal title.

Farley T, Galves A, Dickinson LM, Perez MJ. Forthcoming 2005 Jul. Stress, coping, and health: a comparison of Mexican immigrants, Mexican-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Journal of Immigrant Health.

Singh R , Jamieson A, Cresswell P. In Press 2008 Sep 24. GILT is a critical host factor for Listeria monocytogenes infection. Nature advance online publication. doi:10.1038/nature07344.

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Referencing Conference Proceedings and Conference Papers

Format: proceedings  Editor(s). Date of publication. Title of book. Number and name of conference; date of conference in year month day order; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Extent (optional). Notes (optional).
 

Callaos N, Margenstern M, Zhang J, Castillo O, Doberkat EE, editors. c2003. SCI 2003. Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics; 2003 Jul; Orlando, FL. Orlando (FL): International Institute of Informatics and Systematics.

Antonioli GE, editor. c1997. Pacemaker leads 1997. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Pacemaker Leads; 1997 Sep 11-13; Ferrara, Italy. Bologna (Italy): Monducci Editore.

Format: paper Author(s) of paper. Date. Title of paper. In: Editor(s). Title of book. Number and name of conference; date of conference in year month day; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Pages. Notes (optional).
Full paper

Lee DJ, Bates D, Dromey C, Xu X, Antani S. c2003. An imaging system correlating lip shapes with tongue contact patterns for speech pathology research. In: Krol M, Mitra S, Lee DJ, editors. CBMS 2003. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems; 2003 Jun 26-27; New York. Los Alamitos (CA): IEEE Computer Society. p. 307-313.

Abstract

Church JA, Marshall G, Lang W. 1989. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in an HIV-infected child [abstract]. In: Morisset RA, editor. 5th International Conference on AIDS: the Scientific and Social Challenge; 1989 Jun 4-9; Montreal. Ottawa (ON): International Development Research Centre. p. 494.

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Referencing Newspaper Articles

Format Author(s). Date of publication. Article title. Newspaper title (edition). Section designator: beginning page number (column number).
SCIE 311: the column number is optional.
Signed newspaper article

Rensberger B, Specter B. 1989 Aug 7. CFCs may be destroyed by natural process. Washington Post (Final Ed.). Sect. A:2(col. 5).

Unsigned newspaper article

Gene data may help fight colon cancer. 1990 Aug 24. Los Angeles Times. Sect. A:4.

Signed newspaper article - online

Revkin AC. 2006 Dec 30. Arctic ice shelf broke off Canadian island. New York Times. [accessed 2009 Nov 3]. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/30/science/earth/30ice.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=ayles%20ice%20shelf&st=cse.

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Referencing Theses & Dissertations

Format: Author. Date of degree. Title [type of publication]. Place: institution granting degree. Total pages (optional). Availability statement (optional).

Bashaw MJ. 2003. Social behaviour in a herd of captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) [dissertation]. Atlanta (GA): Georgia Institute of Technology. 226 p. Available from: ProQuest Digital Dissertations; AAT 3110389.

Harper SJ. 1991. The political business cycle and fiscal policy in Canada [master's thesis]. Calgary (AB): University of Calgary; [accessed 2015 Aug 10]. http://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/24345/1/1991_Harper.pdf.

Oviedo S. 1995. Adolescent pregnancy: voices heard in the everyday lives of pregnant teenagers [master's thesis]. Denton (TX): University of North Texas.

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Referencing Government Publications

 

Performing organization is the government dept/agency that the person normally works for. If he/she works for the same organization that is publishing the report, use "Issued by performing organization."

Sponsoring organization is the funding organization.

 

Written & published by sponsoring organization

 

Written & published by sponsoring organization, online-only

Format:Author(s). Date of publication. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher or sponsoring organization. Extent. Report No.: . Notes (optional).

Feller BA. 1981. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US). Report No.: VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88-228622.

Atwater BF, Griggs GB. 2012. Deep-sea turbidites as guides to Holocene earthquake history at the Cascadia subduction zone – alternate views for a seismic-hazard workshop. Reston (VA): U.S. Geological Survey. U.S. Department of the Interior. Report No.: 2012-1043. [accessed 2014 Feb 5]. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1043/.

Written by performing organization & published by sponsoring organization

Format:Author(s) (performing organization name and address.) Date of publication. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher or sponsoring organization. Extent. Report No.: . Contract No.: . Grant No.: . Notes (optional).

Cooper LN (Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence RI). 1990. Theoretical and experimental research into biological mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Final progress report 1 Aug 88-31 Jul 89. Washington (DC): Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US). Report No.: AFOSR-TR-90-0672. Contract No.: AFOSR-88-0028;2305;B4. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; AD-A223615.

Written & published by performing organization

Format:Author(s) . Date of publication. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Report No. : . Contract No. : . Grant No.: . Notes (optional).

Moray NP, Huey M. 1988. Human factors research and nuclear safety. Washington (DC): National Academy Press. Contract No.: NRC-04-86-301. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB89-175517. Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Another example
[click here to see the original document ... see especially the Front Matter]

*SCIE 311: this source is pre-approved for your Other Instructor-Approved Sources section of your references list

Stocker TF (Working Group I Co-Chair, University of Bern), Qin D (Working Group I Co-Chair, China Meteorological Administration), Plattner GK (Director of Science), Tignor MMB (Director of Operations), Allen SK (Senior Science Officer), Boschung J (Administrative Assistant), Nauels A (Science Assistant), Xia Y (Science Officer), Bex V (IT Officer), Midgley P (Head), editors. 2013. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Another example:  [click to see the original document ... this references the Summary for Policymakers section]

*SCIE 311: this source is pre-approved for your Other Instructor-Approved Sources section of your references list

IPCC. 2013. Summary for Policymakers. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor MMB, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley P, editors. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

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Referencing Internet Sources

Format Author/creator/editor. Date of publication. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.
or:
Title of homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.
Date of publication (if not available), edition, place of publication, and publisher are optional.
If a date is not available, replace with: [date unknown]
If a web document includes both a date for the last update and a copyright date, use the date of last update.
Web site or files

APSnet: plant pathology online. c1994-2005. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org/.

Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. [date unknown]. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.0.1. Oxford (UK): The Cochrane Collaboration; [updated 2008 Sep; accessed 2009 Jun 10]. http://www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook/.

Lawrence RA. 1997. A review of the medical benefits and contraindications to breastfeeding in the United States. Arlington (VA): National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health (US); [accessed 2005 Jun 28]. http://www.ncemch.org/pubs/PDFs/breastfeedingTIB.pdf.

Patrias K. 2001. National Library of Medicine recommended formats for bibliographic citation: supplement: Internet formats. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, Reference Section; [accessed 2005 Aug 22]. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/formats/internet.pdf.

Pryor G. 2003. Why do giraffes have long necks? An evolutionary analysis. [accessed 2004 Aug 5]. http://www.zoo.ufl.edu/gpryor/giraffe.evolution.html.

Smithsonian Institute. Blast from the past. [accessed 2006 Feb 4]. http://www.nmnh.si.edu/paleo/blast/.

Electronic encyclopedia or handbook

Herbison L, Frame GW. 2005. giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Encyclopaedia Britannica. [accessed 2005 Sep 22]. http://search.eb.com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca:2048/eb/article-9036897.

Hwang SA, Actor JK. 2014. Lymphocytes. eLS. [accessed 2015 Aug 11]. http://www.els.net.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0001190.html.  doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0001190.pub2.

[NIOSH] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2011. Silica, crystalline (as respirable dust). NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; [updated 2016 Apr 11; accessed 2016 Aug 30]. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0684.html.
- the in-text citation could be (NIOSH 2011). Square brackets, [], denote author-supplied information.

Articles

Can be referenced like print articles, as above.

If the article is in a Web page format, then:
How to: be more productive. 2006 Aug. Wired. [accessed 2006 Aug 1];14(08). http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.08/howtodesk.html.
(Wired is the name of the online magazine.)

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Adapted from:
Callan SJ, Penwarden AP, Wendell C. 1999. IX. The Council of Biology Editors (CBE) Style of Documentation in Science and Mathematics. Rochester (NY): State University of New York, Monroe Community College, MCC Libraries; [accessed 2005 August 24]. http://www.monroecc.edu/depts/library/cbe.htm. From: The New Guide to Writing Research Papers.

Patrias K. 1991. National Library of Medicine recommended formats for bibliographic citation. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, Reference Section.

Patrias K. 2001. National Library of Medicine recommended formats for bibliographic citation: supplement: Internet formats. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, Reference Section; [accessed 2005 August 22]. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/formats/internet.pdf. 
[Replaced by: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine]

Style Manual Committee, Council of Science Editors. 2006. Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 7th ed. Reston (VA): Council of Science Editors.

Style Manual Committee, Council of Science Editors. 2014.  Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 8th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Images and Citing

"Inclusion of print images in a paper is acceptable if that paper is not copied and distributed outside of the institution." (http://library.ucalgary.ca/copyright/images)

 

Image Sources

Science Photo Library (SPL)

  • Use general search terms
  • "World's leading provider of science photos"
  • >100,000 science, technology & industry, space & astronomy, history of science & medicine and more images

Colourbox (sign-up required, free)
Wikimedia - many royalty-free images
National Geographic stock photos (slow to load, but many images)

  • Uncheck "Rights Managed" option for royalty-free images

Getty's Open Content Program images (works in the J. Paul Getty Museum's collections.)

  • Use the search box to narrow the results
  • "The Getty makes available, without charge, all available digital images to which the Getty holds the rights or that are in the public domain to be used for any purpose. No permission is required. ... Those available as open content images are identified with a "Download" link."

Google Advanced Image Search

 

Flickr Advanced Search

  • Choose "Modifications allowed" if you want to make changes to the image

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) "Science as Art" set
Pics4Learning - copyright friendly images for education
Images Canada
BigFoto

Other image sources (your mileage may vary)
Other stock image sources (some royalty-free, with Creative Commons licensing)

 

Citing & Mentioning Figures in Your Paper

  • Citing: general guidelines
    • Articles/books: If using the article/book in your paper, you will already have an entry for it in the reference list. In the caption, provide a citation to that entry as you would within your text, adding a page number.
    • Web/image databases: No references are necessary in the bibliography/reference list BUT you need to mention the source in the caption.
      Format: Author(s). date. Title. Available from: URL
  • Citing: in your paper: If starting a sentence with the word "figure", use the full word (i.e. Figure). Within the sentence use one of Fig or Figure, but not both.

 

A sample "paper":

lorem ipsum lorem ipsum lorem ipsum lorem ipsum mountain hare (Fig. 1) lorem ipsum lorem while Fig. 2 is a six-storey tall hot air balloon in the shape of the Energizer Bunny lorem ipsum. Figure 2 lorem ipsum lorem ipsum.


Figure 1. Animals can seem to have personalities.
(McPherson P. 2009. Rabbit.
http://www.pics4learning.com/details.php?img=backgrounds4020.jpg.)

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 2. An extremely large hot air balloon.
(mandymooo. 2008. Rocky Mountain Balloon Festival.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/prizmatic/2790462118/.)
 

lorem ipsum lorem ipsum lorem ipsum lorem ipsum lorem ipsum lorem ipsum lorem ipsum lorem ipsum

Other common science & engineering citation styles

Bibliographic Software & Citation Generators

Programs

There are several programs, some free, some online, that will store database search results and references, organize them, and help you cite them. The most common ones are Zotero, Mendeley, and EndNote. The library offers workshops on these as well. More information, including a comparison chart, is available on the Citation Tools LibGuide.

Websites for one-off references

These sites format single references if you supply a DOI or the appropriate bibliographic information (authors, title, page numbers, etc.)

Remember to double-check the output for errors!