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Bachelor of Health Sciences

Constructs and Context

Populations are complex, and are shaped by social, political, cultural, economic and religious etc. constructs so you will come across a wide variety of different viewpoints when you engage with the scholarly and non-scholarly work on global and local health challenges.

Be aware of your own viewpoints, biases and preconceived notions.

Availability Heuristic: Prioritizing information that is easily recalled and prioritized due to recent experience/frequently encountered/notable event. 

Confirmation Bias: Also called confirmatory or myside bias, is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. It is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error or inductive reasoning. In layman's terms, an "echo-chamber".  

Context: When evaluating a piece of evidence that supports your investigation, be sure you consider the context. Perhaps aspects of the information can be useful, but it is important to acknowledge aspects that may not "translate" to your investigation. For example: compare and contrast United States of America healthcare to the National Health System (NHS) of the United Kingdom to Health Canada. 

Evaluating Information Using the CRAP Test


  • How recently was the information published?
  • When was the last time the source was updated?
  • What are seminal works in your field that stand the test of time and what information do you require that needs to be very current?


  • Does the creator/author reference sources in their information? Are they trustworthy?


  • Who is the creator/author?
  • What credentials do they have?
  • Are the credentials reputable, recognized and/or authoritative?
  • Is the information sponsored, supported or funded by a third party? If so, is the creator transparent about their sponsor?
  • Is the publisher reputable?

Purpose/Point of View

  • Is it an opinion piece? 
  • Is it biased?
  • Is the creator trying to sell you something?
  • Is the creator trying to persuade you in some way?

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