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BUSN - Citing Business Sources

APA, JOM citation style info and examples

What am I citing?

Scholarly journal articles      
  • Journals are published on a regular basis
  • Usually includes an abstract/summary
  • Often report on original research
  • Cite other works and have lists of references
  • Articles are lengthy usually >10 pages
  • Author(s) are researchers, professors, subject experts and credentials are provided
  • Journal focuses on a specific field of study
  • Written for academic audience
  • Available in print or online

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Trade publications
  • Trade publications are published on a regular basis
  • Trade publications are written for those involved in a specific industry or trade
  • Trade articles are written about specific industries, trades or products
  • Articles are shorter usually a few pages in  length
  • No list of references
  • Often have glossy images
  • Available in print or online

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Magazine articles
  • Magazines are published on a regular basis
  • Magazines are written for the general public
  • Magazine articles are written about topics of general interest
  • Articles are shorter usually a few pages in  length
  • No list of references
  • Often have glossy images
  • Available in print or online

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Open access
news articles
  • Published on websites of newspapers, wire services, radio, television
  • Written for the general public
  • Usually about very current events
  • Written by news reporters or may not have an author
  • Articles are short
  • No references listed
  • Often include advertising
  • Often invite comments

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News articles
retrieved from
an online
  • Published by newspapers, wire services, radio, television
  • Accessible online through databases like Factiva; Canadian Newsstand etc.
  • Written for the general public
  • Usually about very current events
  • Written by news reporters or may not have an author
  • No references listed
  • No advertising
  • No comments invited

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  • May be hosted by anyone – authoritative sources, news agencies, organizations as well as members of the general public
  • Promote discussion on a specific theme/topic/cause
  • Comments are invited
  • Usually shows an archive of posts
  • Posts are often categorized by specific topics

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  • Prepared by government, corporations, organizations, individuals etc.
  • Released to the news media
  • Usually making an announcement about a current event, decision or development
  • Can be found on an organization's website

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  • Purpose is to provide the public with information about the company and promote its products or services
  • Includes information such as: company history, operations, products/services, executives, investors’ information, news etc.

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  • Books are available in print and electronic versions
  • Accessed through the library catalogue or an e-book aggregator such as Ebrary, Books 24X7 Business Pro; Safari Online

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Chapters in
a book
  • Chapters in a book may all be written by the author(s) of the book, OR
  • a book may be a collection of chapters each written by different author(s) – in this case the book is “edited” by one or more editors
  • They may be confused with journal articles - look for the word "Chapter" and note if there is a journal title, volume and issue number at the top or bottom of the page.

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  • Websites that allow anyone to add, delete or edit content using a web browser
  • Searchable by keyword

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Annual reports
  • Publications provided by publicly-traded companies to their shareholders
  • Also called 10-K reports (United States)
  • Provide information about operations and detailed financial statements
  • May be found on a company website; SEDAR (Canadian companies) or EDGAR (US companies)
  • Usually published electronically but many companies also publish a print version

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  • Published by government departments or agencies
  • May be in print or electronic format
  • Government documents include legislation, regulations, reports etc.

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Industry reports
  • Published by business information publishers like Marketline; Mergent; Standard & Poor’s; Business Monitor International; IBISWorld; Euromonitor, etc.
  • Provide information at the industry level and usually include market information, statistics, trends, issues, outlook/forecast etc.
  • Usually accessed electronically through online business databases

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Analyst reports
  • Written by financial analysts who are affiliated with major investment firms
  • These reports are written strictly from an investment point-of-view and include the analyst's recommendations
  • May be at the company or industry level
  • Usually accessed electronically through the online databases ThomsonONE or Bloomberg

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Social media
  • Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, etc.
  • Purpose is to share and exchange information in virtual communities
  • All content is user-generated
  • “Authored” by businesses, organizations, communities and individuals – authority of the information depends on the author/creator

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