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Citation Help

This guide provides assistance and information for learning the major citation styles.

Referencing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

As APA and MLA do not currently have format styles on this content, these citation styles have been created by NorQuest Library and NorQuest Indigenous Student Centre Staff. Thank you for allowing these to be further shared through a CC BY-NC 4.0 Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International). Details and Exceptions.

APA Style

How to cite Indigenous Elders & Knowledge Keepers

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers are cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation should follow the same guidelines noted for a paraphrase or direct quote:

Name of Elder/Knowledge Keeper with year of communication.

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2018).

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2018).


How to reference Indigenous Elders or Knowledge Keepers

Format:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.

Example:

Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

 

Source: NorQuest College Library, 2020

MLA Style

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 

 

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

 

Source: NorQuest College Library, 2020

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